Temple architecture in tamilnadu pdf

Posted on 05.04.2021 Comments

Known as the temple city of India, Tamil Nadu is one place in South India where the elaborate architecture and brilliant sculptures of its ancient temples, leave all its tourists spellbound with their astounding beauty. With almost all the temples built during historic and medieval times, a trip to these temples provides you with a deep insight into brilliant architectural, sculptural and artistic skills of the engineers, architects and artisans of the bygone times.

These temples also showcase the opulent and lavish tastes of the erstwhile royal kings, be it Pallavas, Cholas or Nayakas.

If you are planning for a South India temple tourwe bring to you a list of 15 famous temples of Tamil Nadu that not only provide you a great spiritual experience but, also give you a chance to revel in their mesmerizing designs, still speaking stories of their glorious past.

According to historical and archaeological records, the temple was originally built around 6th century AD and the major portion of it was damaged in 14th century by the Muslim invaders in India. The present structure of the temple dates back to 16th century when it was again restored to its pristine glory by the Nayak rulers.

The temple is a masterpiece of the Dravidian architecture. Adorned with thousands of figures of gods, goddesses and demons, the Meenakshi Amman Temple is no less than an architectural marvel. Besides gopurams, intricately carved figures and scenes depicted from Indian mythology in the halls add to the artistic charm of the temple. The temple today, sees a footfall of thousands of devotees and tourists every day that raises to around 1 million during the annual Meenakshi Thirukalyanam festival celebrated in the months of April-May.

Built under the reign of the Chola dynasty in 11th century AD, the temple stands tall as a testimony to the opulence and grandeur of the Chola rulers. The greatest attraction of the temple is its ft Tall. With no granite quarry within km. Not only transportation, just imagine how such a heavy rock must have been first carved owing to the fact that granite is one of the hardest stones to be cut, and then later on embellished on top of a ft tall Vimana during the times when the technology was just in its early stages?

How to Spend 48 Hours in Chennai. It is also only one of its kind shrine where you will find a unique mix of a temple and township co-existing; a part of the temple is actually dedicated to temple activities whereas the remaining portion serves as a township for human. The temple also has 7 prakaras or enclosures with the presiding deity of Lord Vishnu in the form of Lord Ranganathaswamy reclining on five-headed serpent, enshrined in the innermost prakara.

In the 14th century, the temple was plundered of its wealth by Muslim invaders and was again restored to its original grandeur by the Vijayanagara and Nayaka rulers in late 16th century. Magnificent architecture, delicate carvings, exquisite sculptures and brilliant frescoes of the temple, even today give you a deep insight into the superb skills of the then architects, sculptors and artisans.

During your visit to the temple, you just cannot miss the thousand-pillared hall that can leave anyone awed with its artistic brilliance; the exquisitely carved figures of horses standing on their rear legs depicting war scenes on the base of these pillars offer a true spectacle. Dating back to the Chola era, the temple again represents a Dravidian style of architecture with 7 tiered gopuram adorned with delicate carvings. In danger of failing letter template are 5 enclosures inside the temple with the innermost being the main sanctum housing the Shivlinga in the form of Appu Lingam water Lingam.

There is an underground stream flowing underneath the Shivlinga from which water continuously flows out. To perform the Pooja, she made a lingam from the water of River Cauvery flowing by. Impressed with the devotion of Parvati, Shiva gave her darshans and taught her Shiva Gnana. Enacting the penance of Parvati as Akilandeswari worshipping Lord Shiva, everyday during noon, the priest of the temple dresses as female dressed in saree and offers prayer to Lord Jambukeswarar.

temple architecture in tamilnadu pdf

This noon prayer is attended by hundreds of devotees every day and provides a great insight into few unusual Indian traditions and customs to those travelling to India for the first time. Dating back to late 7th century-early 8th century, the temple is believed to have been built under the reign of the Pallava Dynasty.

Carved entirely out of sandstone, the temple is the oldest temple in Tamil Nadu dedicated to Lord Shiva with its main sanctum enshrining a 16 sided Shivlinga made of a black granite. The architecture of the temple again showcases a brilliant Dravidian style with a delicately carved pyramidal shape tower on the main sanctum and 58 small Shiva shrines enclosed inside the complex.

Prominent highlight of the temple are undoubtedly, the beautifully carved sculptures of Lord Shiva and his consort, Goddess Parvati in different dance postures that can be seen adorning the inner walls. As per mythological beliefs, Goddess Parvati performed a penance here under a sacred mango tree, for Lord Shiva with a Shivlinga made of sand.Temples, first rock-cut type and then made of stones, made their appearance from the 8th century.

Temple Architecture In India – NCERT Notes pdf download

The architecture of temple generally confines to five basic shapes; Caturasra squareAyatasra rectangularVrittayat ellipticalVritta circularAstasra octagonal. The plan of a temple is dictated by the nature of the deity. For example the shrine of the reclining Ranganatha can only be rectangular. The early 7th century saw the rise of monolithic temples carved out of the rock, like the monuments in Mahabalipuram.

The mid 8th century Vaikuntha Perumal has an interesting arrangement of three sanctums, one above the other, within the body of the superstructure. The 9th century marked a fresh movement in the South Indian style, as revealed in several small, simple but very elegant, temples set up during the ascendancy of the Chola and other contemporary dynasties.

Most important of a large number of unpretentious but beautiful shrines that dot the Tamilnadu countryside are the Vijayalaya Colisvara temple at Narttamalai mid-9th century with its circular sanctum, spherical cupola, and massive, plain walls. The great phase of South Indian Architecture extends from the 11th to the 13th century.

From the middle of the 12th century, the Gopurams entrance buildingsto temple enclosures began to be greatly emphasized. They are extremely large and elaborately decorated with sculpture, quite dominating the architectural ensemble. Temples also continued to be built although they never achieved colossal size, they are often of very fine workmanship. The Subramaniya temple of the 17th century, built within the compound of the Brihadeeswara temple at Thanjavur, indicates the vitality of architectural traditions of the later period.

After a gap of a decade, I landed in Hotel Sangam. Its same hospitality, enthusiasm and commitment. Stayed for a night, but a very comfortable, soothing stay. Will love to come again. Their service made me comfortable and success my trip. Worth for money,if need to come to Trichy my choice is Sangam Hotel only.

We stayed for a night at the Sangam Trichy last month. The rooms are very spacious and well furnished. Interior decor is good. Breakfast and meals were tasty and we had a good spread in the buffet breakfast.

The entire family with parents including my twin infants 6 Months old have been to this hotel for a couple of nights stay. Good rooms were allocated and the staff are very helpful and friendly. They might not mention complimentary breakfast while you check in but you do have one.

Stayed here for a night last month. Nice and clean hotel,courteous staff and nice decor especially in the lobby area. Spacious outdoors too,with lots of space for parking vehicles.

This hotel was a wonderful retreat in the hustle and bustle of Tanjore. Rooms were a decent size and very clean. The setting of the pool and garden attractive. We ordered Sangam Tali lunch. The Famous Brahdeeswara Temple is very close to hotel.Famous for its intricately carved temples and rock-cut caves, Mamallapuram or Mahabalipuram as it is famously known, is a historical place in Tamilnadu and well-loved tourist location situated on the Coromandel Coast along the Bay of Bengal, in the state of Tamil Nadu.

Madurai, the cultural capital of Tamil Nadu, is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities of India. Ruled by Pandya kings for the longest time in its history, Madurai is constructed in the form of a lotus. Thiruvannamalai is a town that offers a significant historical place in Tamilnadu is adorned in its countless temples and ashrams.

Thiruvannamalai is where Hindu Mythology takes its form in stunning architecture. Sandwiched between two great rivers of southern India, Cauvery and Arsala, Kumbakonam is a gorgeous temple town in the heart of the Thanjavur district of Tamil Nadu.

The town is a place for the lovers of history and those seeking to understand India's cultural roots and Hinduism.

Located in the Sivaganga district of Tamil Nadu, Chettinad showcases the rich heritage, striking art and grand architecture of the state. The word "Chetti" is a Sanskrit term meaning wealth. It is derived from the original traders of the region who dealt in salt and spices for marbles and other decorative items used in the construction of their properties. There is more to Chettinad other than just an exotic cuisine. It has an elaborately vibrant culture and an over the top extortionate township comprising of ridiculously opulent mansions, palatial homes, magnificent temples and fascinating museums.

Located at the southernmost tip of the Indian peninsula, Kanyakumari is a coastal town in the state of Tamil Nadu. Ever since ancient times, Kanyakumari has been one of the major centres of religion, art and culture. Famous for being the only place in India where you can observe the sunrise and sunset at the same beach, Kanyakumari is a very popular historical place in Tamilnadu, not just because of this unique geographical phenomenon, but also because of its pristine beaches as well as its heritage temples and monuments which attract a huge number of tourists to this city all year round.

Pondicherry, also known as Puducherry and commonly referred to as just Pondy, is one of the seven Union Territories of India. Pondicherry is a little town tucked away on the south-east coastline of India, and it is a destination that promises travellers sanctity and serenity, in the real sense of the terms. Also known as Tanjore or the city of temples, Thanjavur has a lot of cultural value and is known for its famous Tanjore paintings, antiques and handicrafts, textiles and saris, its Carnatic music and musical instruments and of course the temples.

Thanjavur is a rich historical place in Tamilnadu and holds a very important position in the moulding of ancient as well as modern south Indian civilization. Being of religious importance, this place is a must for all pilgrims. There are many religious places in and around the district.

Architecture of Tamil Nadu

Formerly known as Madras, Chennai is the fourth largest city in the country, and it is the capital city of Tamilnadu. A city that has a rich cultural history, Chennai perfectly balances its heritage with its thriving modern lifestyle. Steeped in rich South-Indian history, Chennai is a city that has a plethora of dimensions that one can explore, and regardless of where you go, the city has an old-world charm to it that refuses to be overshadowed.

Forgotten to be touched by time, and still known for its tranquillity, is Tharagambadi, otherwise known as Tranquebar- The land of the singing waves.Variant forms are found in Karnataka formerly Mysore and Andhra Pradesh states. The external walls of the temple are segmented by pilasters and carry niches housing sculpture. Each story is delineated by a parapet of miniature shrines, square at the corners and rectangular with barrel-vault roofs at the centre.

The tower is topped by a dome-shaped cupola and a crowning pot and finial. Subsequently, the style became increasingly elaborate—the complex of temple buildings enclosed by the court became larger, and a number of successive enclosures, each with its own gateway gopurawere added. By the Vijayanagar period — the gopura s had increased in size so that they dominated the much smaller temples inside the enclosures. South Indian temple architecture. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback.

Thank you for your feedback. See Article History. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. South Indian temple architectureor dravidastyle—with its commanding gopura s gateways —can be seen in the Rajarajeshvara and the Gangaikondacolapuram temples. The Deccani style, vasaratended to be an intermixture of the northern and the southern, with early examples at Vatapi, Aihole, and Pattadakal and, later,…. South Asian arts: Medieval temple architecture: South Indian style. History at your fingertips.

Sign up here to see what happened On This Dayevery day in your inbox! Email address. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice.Tamil Nadu is the land of temples and a living museum of styles that originated in the 7th century. The temples in Tamil Nadu some dating to more than 1, years old display intricate carving and sculptures, which bear testimony to the craftsmanship and creativity of the sculptors and artists of ancient India.

In Tamil Nadu, one can see huge temple complexes with towering 'Gopurams' gatewayswhich are a major part of the Dravidian architectural style. Hindu architecture is vigorous while Muslim architecture is virtually non-existent. Temple architecture catalogues the tastes of successive dynasties.

These temples also serve as ample evidence of the vision and forethought of the kings and rulers of olden times to leave behind a heritage that modern India could be proud of.

Tamil Naduthe holy land, is the land of temple architecture. Thousands of temples with lofty towers dot the skyline of the entire state of Tamil Nadu. The Tamils have been the greatest of temple builders. Temples from the pre Christian era as well as those from the 20th century exist in this state, where the ancient rulers have made outstanding contributions to the growth of these monuments of great artistic value.

This gave place to structural temples built with cut stones. These types of sculptural decoration are found at Mamandur, Tiruchirappalli and Pallavaram, which are attributed to Mahendravarman. The examples seen at Mamallapuram exhibit a striking variation from the cave temples with bas-reliefs, monoliths and cutout rocks, which were introduced by Mamalla Narasimhavarman I, son of Mahendravarman.

The Kailasanathar temple at Kanchipuramthe 'City Of Thousand Temples' and the shore temple at Mamallapuram are the best examples of structural temples, which replaced the rock medium. They are attributed to the eternal noble men Rajasimha and Narasimha Varman II during the same period.

Contributions Of The Chola Rulers Followed by Pallavas, the Cholas continued their reign from the middle of the 9th century for over years and established themselves as the superiors among all the dynasties in building mammoth places of worship. They brought significant changes in the structural style with multiple layers, towering 'Gopurams', 'Parivaras' and separate shrine for the goddess.

During their period, the land was studded with temples. Their architectural achievement is the Brihadeeswarar temple at Thanjavur. The temples at Parasuram, Thiruverkadu, Kumbakonam, etc.

temple architecture in tamilnadu pdf

They built many structures in a new style. The Gopurams became taller containing richness in sculptural details and the spacious 'Mandapams' became even larger. Their finest specimens are seen at SrirangamKanchipuramChidambaram and Tiruvannamalai.

Contributions Of The Nayak Rulers Of Madurai The tallest temple towers at Srivilliputhur, MaduraiRameswaram and Tirunelveli are the best in the tradition of the Nayak rulers of Madurai who continued the Vijayanagar example and improved the elegance.

Tamil Nadu Sitemap. Planning For Vacations. Enjoy Your Vacations. Get Best Deals!Nearly 33, ancient temples, many at least to years old, are found scattered all over Tamil Nadu. Most of the largest Hindu Temples reside here. The state also abounds with a large number of temple tanks. The state has 2, temple tanks located in 1, temples. From ancient temples to the Indo-Saracenic style pioneered in Madras of the colonial erachurchesmosques to 20th-century steel and chrome of skyscrapers.

Throughout Tamilakama king was considered to be divine by nature and possessed religious significance. The Modern Tamil word for temple is koil. Titular worship was also given to kings. Several of these have been unearthed near AdichanallurKaveripoompuharpattinam and Mahabalipuramand the construction plans of these sites of worship were shared to some detail in various poems of Sangam literature.

One such temple, the Saluvannkuppan Murukan temple[1] [2] unearthed inconsists of three layers. The lowest layer, consisting of a brick shrine, is one of the oldest of its kind in South India, and is the oldest shrine found dedicated to Murukan. It is one of only two brick shrine pre Pallava Hindu temples to be found in the state, the other being the Veetrirundha Perumal Temple at Veppathur dedicated to Lord Vishnu.

The dynasties of early medieval Tamilakkam expanded and erected structural additions to many of these brick shrines. Sculptures of erotic art, nature and deities from the Meenakshi Templeand Ranganathaswamy Temple date from the Sangam period. Many of the temples of this time have been built on either bricks or granite stones but they didn't survived till modern times due to the destruction caused by the invasion of the Dehli Sultanate Empire under the leadership of Malik Kafur.

Several brick structures dating to the Sangam era have been unearthed at places across Tamil Nadu such as keeladiadichanallur and kodumanal. The findings at these sites indicate that the buildings were built using burnt bricks. The Pallavas ruled from AD — and their greatest constructed accomplishments are the single rock temples in Mahabalipuram and their capital Kanchipuramnow located in Tamil Nadu.

Pallava art and architecture represent an early stage of Dravidian art and architecture which blossomed to its fullest extent under the Chola Dynasty. The first stone and mortar temples of South India were constructed during Pallava rule and were based on earlier brick and timber prototypes. The earliest examples of Pallava constructions are rock-cut temples dating from — CE and structural temples between — CE. A number of rock-cut cave temples bear the inscription of the Pallava king, Mahendravarman I and his successors.

Pallava sculptors later graduated to free-standing structural shrines which inspired Chola temples of a later age. Akshara was the greatest sculptor of their time. After the close of the Sangam age, the first Pandyan empire was established by Kadungon in the 6th century by defeating the Kalabhras, The empire ruled AD 6th — 10th centuriy.

Rock cut and structural temples are significant part of pandyan architecture. The Vimana and mandapa are some of the features of the early Pandyan temples.

Built Spaces: Living Legacies: Film on Chola Temples of Thanjavur and Kumbhakonam

The Shiva temples have a Nandi bull sculpture in front of the maha mandapa. Gopurams are the rectangular entrance and portals of the temples.

Nellaiappar Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to the deity Shiva, located in Tirunelveli, built by Pandyas and the sanctums of the temple were constructed by Nindraseer Nedumaran who reigned in the 7th century.

The mani mandapam with its famous musical pillar was built by Later Pandyas in the 7th century. Nellaiappar temple is spread over 14 acres.Brihadeeswarar Temple is one of the largest temples in India and temple turned years old in Meenakshi Amman Temple is most prominent landmark and most visited tourist attraction in the of Madurai, located on the southern bank of the Vaigai river. The Meenakshi temple has largest temple complexes in Tamil Nadu and surrounded by 14 tallest gopuram also known as temple towers.

The temple is one of the oldest rock-cut structural stone temples of South India and part of the Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram. Annamalaiyar Temple has one of the largest temple complex in India, dedicated to the Lord Shiva and located at the base of Annamalai hills. The temple complex houses four tallest gateway towers and has numerous shrines that includes Annamalaiyar and Unnamulai Amman. Gangaikondacholapuram Temple is situated near Thanjavur city of Tamil Nadu and known for an architectural and engineering marvel.

The great temple of Lord Siva at Gangaikonda also has one of the largest statue of Nandi in entire southern India. Ramanathaswamy Temple is one of the twelve Jyothirlinga temples,located on Rameswaram island of the state. The temple has the longest corridor among all Hindu temples in India and the outer set of corridors are longest in the world.

Ucchi Pillayar Temple is one of the most famous temple of Lord Ganesh in India and the rock provides a stunning view of Trichy city.

temple architecture in tamilnadu pdf

Thiruchendur Murugan Temple is one of the most visited temple complex in India, dedicated to Lord Murugan. The temple is also one of the richest temple of Tamil Nadu and one of the largest temple complexes by area in India.

Ranganathaswamy Temple is listed as the largest functioning Hindu temple in the world,dedicated to Ranganatha and located in Srirangam. The temple has largest temple in India and one of the largest religious complexes in the world. Thillai Nataraja Temple is one of the major shrine of Lord Shiva, located in the town of Chidambaram.

Chidambaram temple is one of the five Pancha Bootha Sthalams representing one of the five classical elements and the temple complex spread over 40 acres in heart of the city.

Jambukeswarar Temple is a famous Shiva temple in Tiruchirapalli and one of the five major Shiva Temples of Tamil Nadu, located in the Srirangam island. Jambukeswarar temple represents the element of water and has an underground water stream which is always filled with water. Uppiliappan Temple is one of the most visited temples in the Kumbakonam Taluk, dedicated to Hindu god Vishnu.

The temple complex of Uppiliappan contains all the shrines and water bodies associated with it. Ekambareswarar Temple is one of the famous Lord Shiva temple of south India,situated in this holy town of Kancheepuram. The temple has the largest temple in the town of Kanchipuram and one of the tallest gopurams in India.